Soil Basics. This Soil Biology page from the USDA covers living organisms that are critical to soil health.
Soil Texture. Agronomy Fact Sheet #29 from Cornell Cooperative Extension discusses the four soil texture classifications of sands, silts, loams and clays; how they combine to make textural classifications; how soil texture is determined; and the 5 soil management groups in New York State.
Soil Organic Matter. Agronomy Fact Sheet #41 from Cornell Cooperative Extension describes types of organic matter in soil; their physical, chemical & biological benefits; farm practices that help maintain or increase soil organic matter levels; and the importance of continued monitoring of soil organic matter content.
The Cornell Soil Health website offers a variety of resources on soil testing and improvement.
Cornell's Garden Based Learning site also offers information on types of soil tests; suggested tests for lawns, vegetable gardens and fruit crops; and testing for contaminants.
Monthly Temperature Averages for Ithaca, NY lists normal temperatures and precipitation averages for 1971-2000. There are also links to daily and monthly climate updates recorded at 4 sites around Ithaca, on the Ithaca Climate Page (Northeast Regional Climate Center website).
Find freeze/frost probability tables for each state from NOAA's National Climactic Data Center.
Growing Degree Days (GDD) are a measure of heat accumulation used by horticulturalists to predict the date that a flower will bloom or a crop reach maturity. Statistics for the Northeast are provided on this Cornell Atmospheric Sciences & Turf Team website.
The Cornell Garden Based Learning website includes a section on Weather & Climate that includes information on Growing Degree Days, US plant hardiness zones, average frost dates, and microclimates.
Last updated April 26, 2021